ITRN 767 Latin America

ITRN 767: Political Economy and Economic Integration in Latin America
ITRN 767: Economía Política e Integración Económica en América Latina

Version: January 19, 2017

Kenneth A. Reinert

Phone: 703-993-8212
Email: kreinert@gmu.edu
Office: Founders Hall 627
Office hours: Wednesdays, 6-7PM

“The economic development of Latin America since independence is a story of unfulfilled promise.” -Victor Bulmer-Thomas.

“Las naciones, como los hombres, no tienen alas; hacen vus viajes a pie, paso por paso.” -Juan Bautista Alberdi.

Study Guide

Course Description/Descripción del Curso

This course is an overview of political economy and economic integration in Latin America. It  is very broad in its scope. We will cover economic history, development theories as applied to Latin America, trade, debt, structural adjustment, poverty, rural development, and regional trade agreements including NAFTA, Mercosur, and the FTAA. While not abandoning standard economic theory, we will emphasize the role of institutions and path dependence throughout the course. No one “ideological” tradition will be given emphasis over others.

Learning Outcomes/Resultados de Apredizaje

To understand the historical trajectoryof Latin American economic development and the role of policies in this trajectory.

To understand the way that the world economy has impinged upon Latin America and affected its development patterns.

To understand the role of regional integration, including preferential trade agreements, in the development of Latin America.

Main Texts/Principales Textos

Franko, P. (2007) The Puzzle of Latin American Economic Development, Rowman and Littlefield. In Arlington Bookstore. Recommended only because somewhat out of date.

Reyes, J.A. and C.W. Sawyer (2016) Latin American Economic Development, Routledge.

Course Requirements and Grading/Requisitos del Curso

Evaluation of performance in the course will be based on a midterm exam (30 percent), a final exam (30 percent), a country briefing paper (20 percent), and participation (20 percent).

Course Outline and Readings/Esquema del Curso y Lecturas

Week 1 (January 23): Introduction/Introducción

Chapter 1 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Latin America in the World Economy.”

{Chapter 1 of Franko, “Development in Latin America.”}

Ostry, J.D., P. Loungani and D. Fuceri (2016) “Neoliberalism: Oversold?” Finance and Development, 53:2, 38-41.

Recommended:

Fukuyama, F. (2008) “Introduction,” in F. Fukuyama (ed.) Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States , Oxford University Press, 3-47.

Hirschman, A. (1987) “The Political Economy of Latin American Development: Seven Exercises in Retrospection,” Latin American Research Review, 22:3, 7-36.      

Santiso, J. (2006) “Introduction: The Waltzing Paradigms, ” in Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible, MIT Press, 1-8.

Santopietro, J. (2008) “When Chocolate Is A Way of Life,” New York Times, November 4.

Williamson, J. (2000) “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” World Bank Research Observer, 15:2, 251-264.

Week 2 (January 30): History/Historia

Chapter 4 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Latin American Economic History.”

{Chapter 2 of Franko, “Historical Legacies.”}

Recommened:

Handy timeline.

Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J.A. Robinson (2005) “Institutions as a Fundamental Cause of  Long-Run Growth,” in P. Aghion and S.N. Durlauf (eds.), Handbook of Economic Growth, Vol. 1A, Elsevier, 385-472.

Blackburn, R. (1997) The Making of New World Slavery, Verso.

Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003) “Latin American Economic Development: An Overview,” in The Economic History of Latin America Since Independence, Cambridge Univeristy Press, 1-18.

Coatsworth, J.H. (2005) “Structures, Endowments, and Institutions in the Economic History of Latin America,” Latin American Research Review, 40:3, 126-144.

Goodwin, R. (2015) Spain: The Centre of the World 1519-1682, Bloomsbury.

Maddison, A. (2007) “The Resurrection of Western Europe and the Transformation of the Americas,” in A. Maddison, Contours of the World Economy, 1-2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History, Oxford University Press, 69-110.

Mann, C.C. (2006) 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, Vintage.

Mann, CC. (2011) 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, Knopf.

Przeworski, A. and C. Curvale (2008) “Does Politics Explain the  Economic Gap between the United States and Latin America?” in F. Fukuyama (ed.) Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States , Oxford University Press, 99-133.

Robinson, J.A. (2008) “The Latin American Equilibrium,” in F. Fukuyama (ed.) Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States , Oxford University Press, 161-193.

Santiso, J. (2006) “The Unfolding Futures of Latin American , ” in Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible, MIT Press, 9-20.

Yeager, T. (1995) “Encomienda or Slavery? The Spanish Crown’s Choice of Labor Organization in Sixteenth Century Spanish America,” Journal of Economic History, 55:4, 842-859.

Week 3 (February 6): Import Substitution Industrialization/Industrialización por Sustitución de Importaciones

Chapter 5 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Latin America and Primary Commodities.”

Chapter 6 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Import Substitution in Latin America.”

{Chapter 3 of Franko, “Import Substitution Industrialization.”}

Recommended:

Bruton, H.J. (1998) “A Reconsideration of Import Substitution,” Journal of Economic Literature, 36:2, 903-936.

Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003) “Inward-Looking Development in the Postwar Period,” in The Economic History of Latin America Since Independence, Cambridge Univeristy Press, 268-311.

Cypher, J.M. and J.L. Dietz (2009) “The Initial Structural Transformation,” Chapter 9 of The Process of Economic Development, Routledge, London, 271-307.

Domínguez, J.I. (2008) “Explaining Latin America’s Lagging Development in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century.” in F. Fukuyama (ed.) Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States , Oxford University Press, 72-96.

Donghi, T.H. (2008) “Two Centuries of South American Reflection on the Development Gap between the United States and Latin America.” in F. Fukuyama (ed.) Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States , Oxford University Press, 11-47.

Hirschman, A.O. (1968) “The Political Economy of Imort Substituting Industrialization in Latin America,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 82:1, 1-32. 

Pérez, C. (1996) “La Modernización Industrial en América Latina y la Herencia de la Sustitución de Importaciones, Comercio Exterior, 46:5, 347-363.

Reinert, K.A. (2017) “Trade in Goods,” in K.A. Reinert (ed.), Handbook of Globalisation and Development, Edward Elgar, 19-35.

Week 4 (February 13): Debt and Stabilization/La Deuda y la Estabilización

Chapter 8 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Exchange Rate Policy.”

Chapter 9 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Financing Current Account Deficits.”

Chapter 10 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Macroeconomic Policy in Latin America.”

Chapter 11 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Macroeconomic Stability.”

Recommended:

Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003) “New Trade Strategies and Debt-Led Growth,” in The Economic History of Latin America Since Independence, Cambridge Univeristy Press, 313-352.

Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003) “Debt, Adjustment, and the Sift to a New Paradigm,” in The Economic History of Latin America Since Independence, Cambridge Univeristy Press, 353-391.

Dornbusch, R. (1985) “Dealing with Debt in the 1980s,” Third World Quarterly, 7:3, 532-551.

Chapter 4 of Franko, “Latin America’s Debt Crisis.”

Chapter 5 of Franko, “Macroeconomic Stabilization.”

Lustig, N. (2000) “Crises and the Poor: Socially Responsible Macroeconomics,” EconomíaJournal of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association, 1:1, 1-30. 

Reinert, K.A. (2012) “Structural Change and Adjustment,” in An Introduction to International Economics: New Perspectives on the World Economy, Cambridge University Press.

Rojas-Suarez, L. (2003) “Monetary Policy and Exchange Rates: Guiding Principles for a Sustainable Regime,” in Kuczynski, P.P. and J. Williamson (eds.) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth in Latin America, Institute for International Economics, 123-155.

Santiso, J. (2006) “The Present Decline” and “Structural Adjustments as Temporal Adjustments” in Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible, MIT Press, 21-95.

Toro, F. (2017) “As Socialist Venezuela Collapses, Socialist Bolivia Thrives. Here’s Why,” Washington Post, January 6.

Week 5 (February 20): The State and Growth in Latin America/El Estado y el Crecimiento en América Latina

Chapter 2 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Economic Growth and Latin America.”

{Chapter 6 of Franko, “The Role of the State.”}

{Chapter 9 of Franko, “Policies Underpinning Growth.”}

Recommended:

Artana, D., R. López Murphy, and F. Navajas (2003) “A Fiscal Policy Agenda,” in Kuczynski, P.P.  and J. Williamson (eds.) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth in Latin America, Institute for International Economics, 75-101.

Cárdenas, M. and G. Perry (2011) “Fiscal Policy in Latin Ameria,” in J.A. Ocampo and J. Ros (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Latin American Economics, Oxford University Press, 266-292.

Fishlow, A. (1990) “The Latin American State,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 4:3, 61-74.

Fukuyama, F. (2008) “Do Defective Institutions Explain the Development Gap between the United States and Latin America?”in F. Fukuyama (ed.) Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States , Oxford University Press, 194-221.

Inter-American Development Bank (2005) The Politics of Policies.

Kuczynski, P.-P. (2003) “Reforming the State,” Kuczynski, P.P. and J. Williamson (eds.) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth in Latin America, Institute for International Economics, 33-47.

Roett, R. and F.E. González (2008) “The Role of High-Stakes Politics in Latin America’s Development Gap,” in F. Fukuyama (ed.) Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States , Oxford University Press, 134-158.

Santiso, J. (2006) “The Chilean Trajectory: From Liberalism to Possibilism,” in Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible, MIT Press, 97-116.

Week 6 (February 27): The New Openness/La Nueva Apertura

Chapter 7 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Latin American Trade Policy.”

{Chapter 7 of Franko, “Financing for Development.”}

{Chapter 8 of Franko, “Contemporary Trade Policy.”}

Recommended:

Bouzas, R. and S. Keifman (2003) “Making Trade Liberalization Work,” in P.P. Kuczynski, P.P. and J. Williamson (eds.) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth in Latin America, Institute for International Economics, 157-179.

Coatsworth, J.H. and J.G. Williamson (2004) “Always Protectionist? Latin American Tariffs from Independence to Great Depression,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 36:2 205-232.

The Economist (2013) “Latin American Geoeconomics: A Continental Divide,” May 18.

The Economist (2017) “There Has Never Been A Better Time for Latin American Integration,” March 25.

Enoch, C., W. Bossu, C. Caseres and D. Singh (2017) Financial Integration in Latin America: A New Strategy for a New Normal, International Monetary Fund.

de Ferranti, D. et al. (2002) From Natural Resources to the Knowledge Economy: Trade and Job Quality, World Bank.

Ferraz, J.C., M. Mortimore and M. Tavares (2011) “Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America,” in J.A. Ocampo and J. Ros (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Latin American Economics, Oxford University Press, 438-460.

Fontdeglória, X. (2015) “China acelerará sus inversiones en América Latina,” El País, 8 Enero.

Reinert, K.A. (2012) “Exchange Rates and Purchasing Power Parity,” in An Introduction to International Economics: New Perspectives on the World Economy, Cambridge University Press.

Santiso, J. (2006)”Lula Light,” in Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible, MIT Press, 117-138.

Sawers, L. (2005) “Nontraditional or New Traditional Exports,” Latin American Research Review, 40:3, 40-67.

Week 7 (March 6): Midterm Exam: Briefing Paper Paragraph Due via Email

Week 8 (March 13): No Class Due to Spring Break

Week 9 (March 20): NAFTA/TLCAN (Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte)

Hufbauer and Schott, Chapters 1 and 9 of NAFTA Revisited: Achievements and Challenges, Institute for International Economics, 2005.

Recommended:

Davis, D.E. (2004) “From Victors to Victims? Rural Middle Classes, Revolutionary Legacies, and the Unfulfilled Promise of Discplinary Development in Mexico,” Chapter 5 of Discipline and Development: Middle Classes and Prosperity in East Asia and Latin America, Cambrige University Press, 245-339.

The Economist (2010) “Migrant Farm Workers: Field of Tears,” December 16.

The Economist (2012) “Going Up in the World,” November 24.

Fernández-Kelly, P. and D.S. Massey (2007) “Borders for Whom? The Role of NAFTA in Mexico-U.S. Migration,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science610, 98-118.

Puyana, A. (2012) “Mexican Agriculture and NAFTA: A 20-Year Balance Sheet,” Review of Agrarian Studies, 2:1, 1-43.

Reinert, K.A. (2012) “Preferential Trade Agreements,” in An Introduction to International Economics: New Perspectives on the World Economy, Cambridge University Press.

Reinert, K.A. and D.W. Roland-Holst, “North-South Trade and Occupational Wages: Some Evidence from North America,” Review of International Economics, 6:1, 1998, 74-89.

Reinert, K.A. and D.W. Roland-Holst, “NAFTA and Industrial Pollution: Some General Equilibrium Estimates,” Journal of Economic Integration, 16:2, 2001, 165-179.

Santiso, J. (2006) “Mexico: The Great Transformation, ” in Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible, MIT Press, 139-181.

Week 10 (March 27): CATFA-DR, Mercosur, Andean Community and the FTAA

Chapter 1 of World Bank (2005) DR-CAFTA: Challenges and Opportunities for Central America, 2005.  

Creamer, G. (2009) “The Andean Community,” in K. Reinert, K. Rajan, A. Glass and L. Davis (eds.), The Princeton Encylopedia of the World Economy, 61-64, available electronically through library catalog.

Mendez, J. (2009) “CAFTA-DR,” in K. Reinert, K. Rajan, A. Glass and L. Davis (eds.), The Princeton Encylopedia of the World Economy, 172-174, available electronically through library catalog.

Feinberg, R. (2009) “The FTAA,” in K. Reinert, K. Rajan, A. Glass and L. Davis (eds.), The Princeton Encylopedia of the World Economy, 505-508, available electronically through library catalog.

Roett, R. (2009) “Mercosur,” in K. Reinert, K. Rajan, A. Glass and L. Davis (eds.), The Princeton Encylopedia of the World Economy, 759-767, available electronically through library catalog.

Recommended:
   
Bulmer-Thomas, V. (1998) “The Central American Common Market: From Closed to Open Regionalism,” World Development, 26:2, 313-322.    

The Economist (2012) “South American Integration: Mercosur RIP?” July 14, 2012.

Esteradeordal, A., J. Goto, and R. Saez, (2001)”The New Regionalism in the Americas: The Case of Mercosur,” Journal of Economic Integration, 16:2, 180-202.

Reid, M. (2002) “Mercosur: A Critical Overview,” Chatham House Mercosur Study Group

Week 11 (April 3): Rural Development/El Desarrollo Rural

{Chapter 10 of Franko, “Rural Development.”}

Chapter 1 of de Ferranti, D. et al. (2005), Beyond the City: The Rural Contribution to Development, World Bank. Available on the web and through World Bank documents database.

Recommended:

Arana, M. (2013) “The Kids Left Behind By the Boom,” New York Times, March 20.

Davis, D.E. (2004) Discipline and Development: Middle Classes and Prosperity in East Asia and Latin America, Cambridge University Press.

Echeverria, R.C. (2000) “Options for Rural Poverty Reduction in Latin America and the Caribbean,” CEPAL Review, 70, 151-164.

Reichman, D.R. (2011) The Broken Village: Coffee, Migration, and Globalization in Honduras, Cornell University Press.

Sheahan, J. (1987) “Ownership I: Land,” in Patterns of Development in Latin AmericaPrinceton University Press, 130-154.

Week 12 (April 10): No Class, Work on Papers!

Week 13 (April 17): Poverty and Inequality/La Pobreza y la Desigualdad

Chapter 12 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Poverty and Inequality.”

{Chapter 11 of Franko, “Poverty and Inequality.”}

Overview and Chapter 6 of Fiszbein, A. and N. Schady (2009) Conditional Cash Transfers: Reducing Present and Future Povery, World Bank. Available via World Bank e-Library.

The Economist (2015) “The Poverty Alert,” February 21.

Recommended:      

Birdsall, N. and M. Székely (2003) “Bootstraps, Not Band-Aids: Poverty, Equity, and Social Policy,” in P.P. Kuczynski, P.P. and J. Williamson (eds.) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth in Latin America, Institute for International Economics, 49-73.

Gasparini, L., G. Cruces and L. Tornarolli (2011) “Recent Trends in Income Inequality in Latin America,” Economía, 11:2, 147-201.

Paes de Barros, R. et al. (2009) Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean, World Bank.

Patricio Korzeniewicz, R. and W.C. Smith, (2000) “Poverty, Inequality, and Growth in Latin America: Searching for the High Road to Globalization,” Latin America Research Review35:3, 7-54. 

Sheahan, J. and E. Iglesias (1998) “Kinds and Causes of Inequality in Latin America,” in N. Birdsall, C. Graham, and R. Sabot (eds.), Beyond Trade-Offs: Market Reform and Equitable Growth in Latin America, Brookings Institution, 29-61.

Vakis, R.,  J. Rigolini and L. Lucchetti (2015) Left Behind: Chronic Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean, World Bank.

Week 14 (April 24): Health and Education/La Salud y La Educación

{Chapter 12 of Franko, “Health Policy.”}

{Chapter 13 of Franko, “Education Policy.”}

Recommended:

Colclough, C., “Education and the Market: Which Parts of the Neoliberal Solution Are Correct?” World Development, 24:4, 1996, 589-610.

Contreras, D., P. Sepúlveda ans S. Bustos (2010) “When Schools Are the Ones that Choose: The Effects of Screening in Chile,” Social Science Quarterly, 91:5, 1349-1368.

Sheahan, J. (1987) “Poverty,” in  Patterns of Development in Latin America, Princeton University Press, 23-48.

Toscana, D. (2013) “The Country That Stopped Reading,” New York Times, March 5.

Wolff, L. and C. de Moura Castro (2003) “Education and Training: The Task Ahead,”  in P.P. Kuczynski and J. Williamson (eds.) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth in Latin America, Institute for International Economics, 181-212.

Week 15 (May 1): Review of Semester/Revista del Semestre

Chapter 13 of Reyes and Sawyer, “Economic Policy Debates in Latin America.”

{Chapter 15 of Franko, “Lessons Learned.”}

Recommended:

Fukuyama. F. (2008) “Conclusion,” in F. Fukuyama (ed.) Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States , Oxford University Press, 268-295.

Navia, P. and A. Velasco (2003) “The Politics of Second-Generation Reforms,” in P.P. Kuczynski and J. Williamson (eds.) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth in Latin AmericaInstitute for International Economics, 265-303.

Santiso, J. (2006) “The Emergence of a Political Economy of the Possible,” in Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible, MIT Press, 165-181.

Williamson, J. (2003) “Summing Up,” in P.P. Kuczynski and J. Williamson (eds.) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth in Latin America, Institute for International Economics, 305-321.

Week 16 (May 8): Final Exam/Examen Final, Papers Due via E-Mail by 9:00 AM on Friday May 12.

Briefing Paper/Documento Informativo

One requirement of this course is for you to write a briefing paper on a country in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. The paper is to be no longer than 4,000 words.  It is to be written in non-technical language suitable for a policy-maker. The paper must include an Excel-prepared chart based on the World Banks’s World Development Indicators (WDI) or on CEPALStat. A paragraph describing your paper is due via email on March 6. The paper is due via email by 9:00 AM on May 12.

The briefing paper is to include sections on recent macroeconomic history, exchange rate management (check the IMF classification), balance of payments issues (check IMF balance of payments statistics), trade policy including (check WTO Trade Policy Review Reports) preferential trade agreements (PTAs, check the WTO RTA database), poverty and human development (check the World Banks’s WDI).

Try your best to include some quality research sources in your briefing paper. Here, Google is not your friend! Google Scholar is your friend. So too is the e-journals resource of Mason’s library system.

Ph.D. student have the option of working with me to develop a paper assignment that supports their progress in their program. Please contact me as early as possible in the semester to discuss this alternative option.

SPGIA Policy on Plagiarism/El Plagio

The profession of scholarship and the intellectual life of a university as well as the field of public policy inquiry depend fundamentally on a foundation of trust.  Thus any act of plagiarism strikes at the heart of the meaning of the university and the purpose of the School.  It constitutes a serious breach of professional ethics and it is unacceptable.

Plagiarism is the use of another’s words or ideas presented as one’s own.  It includes, among other things, the use of specific words, ideas, or frameworks that are the product of another’s work. Honesty and thoroughness in citing sources is essential to professional accountability and personal responsibility.  Appropriate citation is necessary so that arguments, evidence, and claims can be critically examined.

Plagiarism is wrong because of the injustice it does to the person whose ideas are stolen. But it is also wrong because it constitutes lying to one’s professional colleagues.  From a prudential perspective, it is shortsighted and self-defeating, and it can ruin a professional career.

The faculty of the School takes plagiarism seriously and has adopted a zero tolerance policy. Any plagiarized assignment will receive an automatic grade of “F.”  This may lead to failure for the course, resulting in dismissal from the University.  This dismissal will be noted on the student’s transcript. For foreign students who are on a university-sponsored visa (eg. F-1, J-1 or J-2), dismissal also results in the revocation of their visa.

To help enforce the SPP policy on plagiarism, all written work submitted in partial fulfillment of course or degree requirements must be available in electronic form so that it can be compared with electronic databases, as well as submitted to commercial services to which the School subscribes. Faculty may at any time submit student’s work without prior permission from the student. Individual instructors may require that written work be submitted in electronic as well as printed form.  The SPGIA policy on plagiarism is supplementary to the George Mason University Honor Code; it is not intended to replace it or substitute for it.

Nondiscrimination Statement/Afirmación de Antidiscriminación

It is my personal policy not to discriminate among students based on race, ethnicity, religious faith, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, or physical ability.

Disabilities/Incapacidades

If you are a student with a disability and you need academic accommodations, please see me and contact the Disability Resource Center (DRC) at 993-2474.  All academic accommodations must be arranged through the DRC.

Bookshelf/Libros

Blackburn, R. (1997) The Making of New World Slavery, Verso.

Bulmer-Thomas (1987) The Political Economy of Central America Since 1920, Cambridge University Press.

Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003) The Economic History of Latin America Since Independence, Cambridge Univeristy Press.

Cardoso, E. and A. Helwege (1992) Latin America’s Economy: Diversity, Trends, and Conflicts, MIT Press.

Davis, D.E. (2004) Discipline and Development: Middle Classes and Prosperity in East Asia and Latin America, Cambridge University Press.

de la Torre, A et al. (2015) Latin America and the Rising South: Changing World, Changing Priorities, World Bank.

Fukuyama. F. (2008) (ed.) Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States , Oxford University Press.

Kuczynski, P.P. and J. Williamson (eds.) (2003) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth in Latin America, Institute for International Economics.

Mann, C.C. (2006) 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus, Vintage.

Mann, CC. (2011) 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, Knopf.

Ocampo, J.A. and J. Ros (2011) The Oxford Handbook of Latin American Economics, Oxford University Press.

Reid, M. (2007) Forgotten Continent: The Battle for Latin America’s Soul, Yale University Press.

Reinert, K.A. (2012) An Introduction to International Economics: New Perspectives on the World Economy, Cambridge University Press.

Santiso, J. (2006) Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible, MIT Press.

Schott, J.J. and  G.C. Hufbauer (2005) NAFTA Revisited: Achievement and Challenges, Institute for International Economics, 2005.

Sheahan, J., Patterns of Development in Latin America, Princeton University Press, 1987.

Relevant Websites/Sitios del Internet Pertinentes

Acción International
CEPAL Review Articles
El País, LatinoAmérica
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)
Inter-American Development Bank
Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association
Mercosur
Organization of American States
Organization for Tropical Studies
Pan American Health Organization
ProMujer
United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean